Aardwolf scientifically known as Proteles Cristata is neither an aardvark nor a wolf. Their name, which translates to “earth wolf” in Afrikaans, alludes to their underground burrows and canine-like appearance (albeit they are more closely related to cats).

Aardwolves are one of four hyena species in the subfamily Hyaenidae, which also includes spotted, striped, and brown hyenas. Aardwolves, like other hyenas, have longer front legs than hind legs, letting them to move in a loping, low-energy stride across long distances. When aroused, the animals’ manes might bristle up, making them appear larger than they are.

Aardwolves resemble striped hyenas the most, with long muzzles, huge, pointed ears, and black stripes on yellow fur.

The species is found only in Africa, and there are two separate populations: one on the eastern side of the continent, reaching from the point of Egypt south to middle Tanzania, and another on the southern side, ranging from central Angola and Mozambique down through South Africa.

These nocturnal animals inhabit arid, open savannas and grasslands, where they find refuge and raise their young in abandoned tunnels that they deepen.

Aardwolf: Species Profile



SCIENTIFIC NAME: Proteles cristata

TYPE: Mammal

FOOD: Aardwolves primarily feed on termites. They have long, sticky tongues that they use to lap up the insects from termite mounds. They consume mainly termites and their larvae, and occasionally they may eat other small invertebrates.

HABITAT: Aardwolves inhabit open grasslands and scrublands of eastern and southern Africa. They are found in countries such as South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. They prefer areas with sandy soils, where termite mounds are abundant.

SIZE: Aardwolves are small to medium-sized mammals. They have a body length of about 55 to 80 centimeters (22 to 31 inches) and a shoulder height of around 40 to 50 centimeters (16 to 20 inches). They have long, slender bodies and short legs.

AVERAGE LIFE SPAN IN THE NATURAL HABITAT: In the wild, aardwolves have an average lifespan of around 10 to 12 years. However, some individuals have been known to live up to 18 years in captivity.

ACTIVE: Aardwolves are primarily nocturnal, meaning they are most active during the night. They are solitary animals and spend their days resting in underground burrows or abandoned termite mounds.

GESTATION PERIOD: The gestation period for aardwolves is approximately 90 to 100 days. Females give birth to litters of 2 to 4 cubs, which are born in underground dens.

WEIGHT: Aardwolves weigh between 7 and 12 kilograms (15 to 26 pounds), with males being slightly larger than females. They have a distinctive mane of long, bristly hairs along their neck and back.

SIZE COMPARISON TO A 6-FT MAN: Aardwolves are smaller than a 6-ft man. With a body length of about 55 to 80 centimeters (22 to 31 inches) and a shoulder height of around 40 to 50 centimeters (16 to 20 inches), they have a compact and slender build that is well-suited for their specialized termite diet.

Physical Characteristics:

The aardwolf (Proteles cristata) is a unique and fascinating mammal found in Africa. Although it belongs to the same family as hyenas, it has distinct physical characteristics that set it apart. Here are some key features of the aardwolf’s appearance:

  1. Size and Body Shape: The aardwolf is a small to medium-sized mammal, measuring around 60-80 cm (24-31 inches) in length and standing approximately 40-50 cm (16-20 inches) tall at the shoulder. It has a slender body with a relatively short, erect mane along its neck and back.
  2. Coat and Fur: The aardwolf has a soft and coarse coat of fur that is predominantly yellowish-brown in color, with vertical black stripes running along its body. These stripes serve as camouflage, helping it blend into its grassland habitat.
  3. Head and Facial Features: The aardwolf has a small, narrow head with a pointed snout and rounded ears. Its face is adorned with distinct dark markings, including a dark stripe that extends from the inner corner of each eye down to the sides of the mouth.
  4. Teeth and Dentition: Unlike hyenas, which have powerful jaws and large teeth for hunting and scavenging, the aardwolf has a specialized dentition adapted for feeding on termites. Its teeth are relatively small and pointed, enabling it to lap up termites rather than crush and chew them.
  5. Claws and Paws: The aardwolf has slender, non-retractable claws that are well-suited for digging. It uses these claws to excavate termite mounds, its primary source of food.
  6. Tail: The aardwolf has a long, bushy tail that tapers towards the tip. The tail is often held erect while the aardwolf is moving, providing additional balance and stability.

The aardwolf’s unique appearance and adaptations make it well-suited for its specialized diet of termites. Its slender body, distinctive coloration, and specialized dentition are all essential features that enable it to thrive in its grassland habitat. Whether you encounter this fascinating creature in the wild or observe it in captivity, its appearance is sure to capture your attention and leave a lasting impression.

A. Aardwolf Appearance:

The Aardwolf is a small to medium-sized mammal with a slender build and distinctive physical features. Its coat is predominantly sandy or yellowish in color, adorned with vertical black stripes that extend from its head to its tail. These markings provide effective camouflage within its grassland habitat, blending seamlessly with the surrounding vegetation.

B. Adaptations for Survival:

The Aardwolf possesses unique adaptations that contribute to its survival in the challenging savanna environment. It has elongated, tubular-shaped muzzles and specialized teeth that are well-suited for its insect-based diet. Additionally, its large, sensitive ears aid in detecting the faint sounds of its prey and potential threats in the surroundings.

Feeding Habits:

A. Specialized Insectivory:

Unlike its carnivorous relatives, the Aardwolf is primarily an insectivore, with termites being its preferred food source. It has a specialized diet consisting mainly of termites and their eggs, using its long, sticky tongue to extract the insects from their nests. By consuming large quantities of termites, the Aardwolf plays a crucial role in termite population control and ecosystem balance.

B. Niche Partitioning:

The Aardwolf coexists with other larger carnivores, such as lions and hyenas, by occupying a distinct ecological niche. While these apex predators focus on larger prey, the Aardwolf specializes in termites, minimizing competition for food resources within the ecosystem.

Habitat and Distribution:

A. Grassland Dwellers:

Aardwolves inhabit open grasslands and savannas, preferring areas with well-drained soils that support termite colonies. They are found across several regions of eastern and southern Africa, adapting to a variety of grassland habitats and displaying a remarkable ability to survive in both protected areas and human-altered landscapes.

Social Behavior:

The aardwolf (Proteles cristata) is an intriguing mammal that displays a range of interesting behaviors. While it shares some traits with its hyena relatives, the aardwolf has distinct behavioral characteristics that set it apart. Here are some notable aspects of aardwolf behavior:

  1. Nocturnal Lifestyle: The aardwolf is primarily active during the night, preferring to avoid the intense heat of the day. It spends daylight hours resting in underground burrows or hidden in tall grasses.
  2. Solitary Nature: Aardwolves are mostly solitary animals, although they may occasionally form pairs or small family groups consisting of a mating pair and their offspring. They typically establish and defend their own territories, which they mark with scent secretions.
  3. Termite Feeding: The aardwolf is an insectivore with a specialized diet that consists almost entirely of termites. Using its long, sticky tongue, it licks up thousands of termites from their mounds each night. Unlike other hyenas, the aardwolf does not actively hunt or scavenge for larger prey.
  4. Burrow Dwellers: Aardwolves are known for their burrowing behavior. They dig their own burrows or use abandoned burrows of other animals as shelter during the day. These burrows provide protection from predators and extreme weather conditions.
  5. Vocalizations: While generally quiet, aardwolves can produce various vocalizations. They communicate using soft grunts, snorts, and purring sounds. These vocalizations are primarily used during interactions with mates or offspring.
  6. Gentle Disposition: Aardwolves are typically peaceful and non-aggressive animals. They prefer to avoid confrontation and will retreat to their burrows or use their powerful jaws and sharp teeth only if necessary for self-defense.
  7. Scent Marking: Aardwolves mark their territories by spraying urine and secreting scent from glands located on their paws. These scent markings communicate their presence to other aardwolves and help establish boundaries.
  8. Seasonal Movements: In some regions, aardwolves may undergo seasonal movements in search of food. They may migrate to areas with higher termite populations during the wet season and return to their original territory during drier periods.

Understanding the behavioral characteristics of the aardwolf provides insight into its adaptations and survival strategies. From its nocturnal habits and specialized termite feeding to its solitary nature and burrow-dwelling behavior, the aardwolf’s unique behaviors contribute to its success in its grassland habitats. Observing these behaviors in the wild or learning about them in conservation centers offers a fascinating glimpse into the complex world of this captivating mammal.

A. Solitary Nocturnal Creatures:

Aardwolves are primarily solitary animals, although they may form monogamous pairs during the breeding season. They are primarily active during the night, seeking shelter in burrows or abandoned termite mounds during the day. Their nocturnal lifestyle allows them to avoid the scorching heat and potential predation from diurnal predators.

B. Vocal Communication:

Although generally silent, Aardwolves communicate with soft grunts and purrs, which are believed to play a role in social interactions and mate attraction. These vocalizations, coupled with scent markings, assist in maintaining territorial boundaries and identifying individuals.

Conservation Status:

The Aardwolf is currently listed as a species of “Least Concern” on the IUCN Red List, indicating that its population is relatively stable. However, certain threats, such as habitat loss, fragmentation, and poisoning campaigns targeting termite populations, pose risks to their long-term survival. Continued conservation efforts and research are essential to ensure the protection of their habitats and the sustainability of their populations.

Conservation Efforts:

A. Habitat Preservation:

Preserving the grassland ecosystems where Aardwolves thrive is crucial for their survival. This involves establishing protected areas, promoting sustainable land management practices, and raising awareness about the importance of conserving these unique habitats.

B. Mitigating Human-Wildlife Conflict:

Efforts to minimize conflicts between humans and Aardwolves, such as developing strategies to prevent termite damage to crops without resorting to harmful practices, can foster coexistence and reduce negative interactions.

Proteles cristata

Proteles cristata (Aardwolf) is a remarkable creature that occupies a unique niche within the African savanna. Its specialized adaptations, insectivorous diet, solitary nature, and reliance on grassland habitats make it an important contributor to the ecosystem’s balance. By understanding and appreciating the Aardwolf’s ecological role, we can work towards its conservation and ensure a future where this captivating species continues to thrive in its natural environment.

Aardwolf Adaptations

The aardwolf (Proteles cristata) is a fascinating mammal that has evolved various adaptations to thrive in its grassland habitat. These adaptations have equipped the aardwolf with specialized features and behaviors that contribute to its survival. Here are some notable adaptations of the aardwolf:

  1. Dietary Specialization: The aardwolf’s primary adaptation is its specialized diet. Unlike other hyenas, which are carnivores or scavengers, the aardwolf is an insectivore. Its long, sticky tongue and reduced dentition are well-suited for consuming termites, which make up the majority of its diet. This adaptation allows the aardwolf to exploit a unique food source and avoid competition with other larger carnivores.
  2. Nocturnal Lifestyle: The aardwolf is adapted to be primarily active during the night. Its eyes are well-adapted to low light conditions, enabling it to navigate and forage in darkness. This nocturnal behavior helps the aardwolf avoid the heat of the day and reduces competition with diurnal predators.
  3. Camouflage: Aardwolves have a unique coat coloration that serves as a form of camouflage. Their fur is pale yellow to buff in color, allowing them to blend seamlessly with the grasslands and sandy soils of their habitat. This adaptation helps them remain inconspicuous and avoid detection by potential predators.
  4. Burrow Dwelling: Aardwolves are skilled diggers and have adapted to utilize burrows for shelter and protection. They excavate their own burrows or utilize abandoned burrows of other animals. These burrows provide refuge from predators, extreme weather conditions, and a safe place to raise their young.
  5. Scent Marking: Aardwolves have scent glands located on their paws, and they use these glands to mark their territories. By scratching the ground and leaving their scent, they communicate their presence to other aardwolves and help establish their boundaries. This adaptation helps prevent conflicts and territorial disputes.
  6. Molar Teeth Structure: The aardwolf has unique molar teeth adapted for crushing and grinding tough termite exoskeletons. Their teeth have well-developed ridges that facilitate efficient mastication of the termites they consume. This adaptation allows them to extract maximum nutrition from their specialized diet.
  7. Efficient Digestive System: Aardwolves have an adapted digestive system that can handle the high cellulose content in termites. They possess a large cecum, a specialized chamber in their digestive tract, where symbiotic bacteria break down cellulose and aid in digestion. This adaptation enables the aardwolf to extract nutrients from the termites it consumes.

These adaptations demonstrate the aardwolf’s remarkable ability to exploit its grassland environment and thrive in a niche that is distinct from other hyenas. Through their specialized diet, nocturnal behavior, burrow dwelling, and other adaptations, aardwolves have found their ecological niche and successfully adapted to their specific ecological requirements.

Best Places to See aardwolf in Tanzania

The aardwolf (Proteles cristata) can be found in various parts of Tanzania, particularly in the northern and central regions. While they are not as commonly sighted as other larger carnivores, there are specific areas where you may have a chance to spot this elusive creature. Here are a few places in Tanzania where aardwolves have been reported:

  1. Serengeti National Park: The vast grasslands of the Serengeti offer suitable habitat for aardwolves. While they are not as frequently encountered as other wildlife in the park, some lucky visitors have spotted them during night drives or early morning game drives. It’s important to note that aardwolves are primarily nocturnal, so the chances of spotting them are higher during nighttime activities.
  2. Ngorongoro Conservation Area: The Ngorongoro Conservation Area, which includes the Ngorongoro Crater, is another potential location to see aardwolves. This protected area provides a diverse habitat, including grasslands and open savannah, which are favored by aardwolves for their termite-rich diet. Exploring the crater’s surroundings during guided tours or game drives may increase the likelihood of spotting these elusive creatures.
  3. Tarangire National Park: Tarangire National Park is known for its large elephant herds and diverse wildlife. While aardwolves are not commonly seen in this park, they have been observed by some visitors during nighttime game drives. The park’s mixed woodland and grassland habitats offer potential for aardwolf sightings, especially in areas where termite mounds are abundant.
  4. Ruaha National Park: Located in central Tanzania, Ruaha National Park is home to a variety of wildlife species, including aardwolves. While sightings are infrequent, exploring the park’s diverse ecosystems and participating in night game drives can increase the chances of encountering these elusive creatures.

It’s important to remember that aardwolves are primarily nocturnal and secretive in nature, making them more challenging to spot compared to other wildlife species. Engaging the services of experienced guides and rangers who are knowledgeable about the behavior and habitat of aardwolves can greatly enhance your chances of seeing them. Additionally, patience and luck play a significant role in wildlife sightings, so maintaining a keen eye and being observant during your safari adventures is essential.

Aardwolf Safari Tips

If you’re planning a safari with the hopes of spotting an aardwolf, here are some tips to increase your chances of a successful sighting:

  1. Choose the right safari destination: Select wildlife reserves or national parks in Tanzania known to have aardwolf populations, such as the Serengeti National Park, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tarangire National Park, or Ruaha National Park.
  2. Opt for night drives: Aardwolves are primarily nocturnal creatures, so participating in nighttime game drives or safari activities can improve your chances of seeing them. These drives typically take place after sunset and are led by experienced guides who know the best spots to search for nocturnal wildlife.
  3. Be patient: Aardwolves are elusive and not as commonly seen as larger predators. Practice patience during your safari and maintain a keen eye for any signs of aardwolf activity, such as tracks, scat, or termite mounds that they may be feeding on.
  4. Listen for their vocalizations: Aardwolves communicate using a range of vocalizations, including growls, chattering, and barks. Listen for these distinctive sounds during your safari, especially in the evening when their activity increases.
  5. Focus on termite mound areas: Aardwolves primarily feed on termites and often visit termite mounds to forage for their food. Keep an eye on areas with abundant termite mounds, as these can be hotspots for aardwolf sightings.
  6. Engage knowledgeable guides: Book your safari with experienced guides who have a good understanding of aardwolf behavior and habitat. They can share valuable insights, track aardwolf movements, and help maximize your chances of encountering these fascinating creatures.
  7. Bring binoculars and a camera: Aardwolves may not always be close to the safari vehicle, so having binoculars can help you observe them from a distance. Additionally, having a camera with a telephoto lens will allow you to capture any sightings and create lasting memories of your aardwolf encounter.

Remember, wildlife sightings are never guaranteed, and aardwolves are elusive by nature. Enjoy the overall safari experience, appreciate the diverse flora and fauna Tanzania has to offer, and embrace the excitement of spotting any wildlife, including the unique and captivating aardwolf.

Aardwolf Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is an aardwolf?

A: An aardwolf is a small mammal belonging to the hyena family. It has a similar appearance to a small hyena or a large fox, with distinctive vertical stripes on its fur.

Q: Where can I find aardwolves in the wild?

A: Aardwolves are primarily found in eastern and southern Africa. In Tanzania, they can be spotted in various wildlife reserves and national parks such as the Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Tarangire, and Ruaha.

Q: What do aardwolves eat?

A: Aardwolves have a specialized diet consisting mainly of termites. They use their long, sticky tongues to lap up termites from termite mounds.

Q: Are aardwolves nocturnal?

A: Yes, aardwolves are primarily nocturnal creatures. They are most active during the night and rest in burrows or dens during the day.

Q: Do aardwolves live in social groups?

A: Aardwolves are typically solitary animals, although they may form monogamous pairs during the mating season. They have a large home range and may come together in small family groups occasionally.

Q: Are aardwolves endangered?

A: Aardwolves are currently classified as a species of “Least Concern” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Their populations are stable, and they are not considered endangered at present.

Q: Can aardwolves be seen during a safari in Tanzania?

A: While aardwolves are not as commonly seen as some other wildlife species, there is a chance of spotting them during a safari in Tanzania. Participating in night drives and focusing on areas with termite mounds can increase your chances of a sighting.

Q: How can I distinguish an aardwolf from other similar animals?

A: Aardwolves can be distinguished by their unique physical characteristics, such as the vertical stripes on their fur, slender body shape, and elongated head. They also have distinct dentition adapted for feeding on termites.

Q: Are aardwolves dangerous to humans?

A: No, aardwolves are not considered dangerous to humans. They are shy and typically avoid interactions with humans.

Q: Can I approach or touch an aardwolf if I encounter one?

A: It is not recommended to approach or attempt to touch any wild animal, including aardwolves. It is important to respect their natural behavior and observe them from a safe distance.

Remember, if you have any specific questions or want more detailed information about aardwolves or any other wildlife, it’s best to consult with experienced guides or wildlife experts during your safari in Tanzania.


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