The African wild dog, also known as the Cape hunting dog or African painted dog, is one of the world’s most endangered mammals. It has a multicolored, patchy coat, enormous bat-like ears, and a bushy tail with a white tip that may function as a flag to keep the pack in contact when hunting. Because no two wild dogs have the same markings, it is simple to distinguish individuals.

The majority of the population remains in South Africa and the southern section of East Africa (particularly Tanzania and northern Mozambique).

Wild dogs are gregarious creatures that congregate in packs of ten or more individuals, however, some groups have more than forty. They are opportunistic predators who prey on medium-sized ruminants like gazelles. They may achieve speeds of more than 44 miles per hour during a sprint.

The African Wild Dog is a rare predator in the African Wild that can be easily identified by markings of black, yellow and dark brown colours. Physically the African Wild Dog has long legs, large and round ears facing upwards complete with a white tip on the tail that is used as a flag to keep the pack in contact while hunting.

African Wild Dogs have the highest hunting success rate than any predator in the African wild. Wild dogs exhibit extreme social behaviour even when they hunt the go in packs of over 10 wild dogs.

Being among the fastest animals, they can run for long distances which helps them to be able to stalk, chase and tire their prey across great distances until they get worn out. Hunting in a group of large numbers, their teamwork can make larger animals than their own size e.g. zebras and wildebeest!

Only about 5000 wild dogs are left in the world and this makes them very rare to spot while on safari.

African Wild Dog: Species Profile

COMMON NAME: African Wild Dog

SWAHILI NAME: Mbwa mwitu wa Afrika

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Lycaon pictus

TYPE: Mammal

FOOD: African Wild Dogs are carnivorous predators. They primarily hunt medium-sized ungulates such as impalas, gazelles, and wildebeests. They are also known to prey on smaller animals like rodents and birds. They are highly efficient hunters and often hunt in packs, using coordinated tactics to bring down their prey.

HABITAT: African Wild Dogs inhabit various habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, including savannas, grasslands, woodlands, and scrublands. They prefer areas with abundant prey and access to water sources. However, they are highly adaptable and can also be found in mountainous regions and desert environments.

SIZE: African Wild Dogs are medium-sized canids. They have a slender and athletic build, with a body length ranging from 75 to 110 centimeters (30 to 43 inches). They stand around 60 to 75 centimeters (24 to 30 inches) tall at the shoulder. Adult males are typically larger than females.

AVERAGE LIFE SPAN IN THE NATURAL HABITAT: The average lifespan of African Wild Dogs in the wild is around 10 to 12 years. However, in captivity, they can live up to 14 years or more.

ACTIVE: African Wild Dogs are diurnal animals, meaning they are primarily active during the day. They are highly social and live in large packs consisting of multiple individuals. They have a complex social structure and exhibit cooperative behaviors during hunting and raising their young.

GESTATION PERIOD: The gestation period for African Wild Dogs is approximately 70 to 80 days. The dominant female in the pack gives birth to a litter of 6 to 16 pups, typically in an underground den. The entire pack assists in raising and providing food for the pups.

WEIGHT: African Wild Dogs weigh between 20 to 30 kilograms (44 to 66 pounds), with males being slightly larger than females. They have long legs, large rounded ears, and a colorful coat pattern of patches in shades of black, white, brown, and yellow.

SIZE COMPARISON TO A 6-FT MAN: African Wild Dogs are smaller in size compared to a 6-ft man. With a body length of 75 to 110 centimeters (30 to 43 inches) and a shoulder height of 60 to 75 centimeters (24 to 30 inches), they are significantly smaller and more slender in build. However, their remarkable social behavior and hunting prowess make them one of Africa’s most fascinating predators.

Physical Characteristics:

The African Wild Dog, also known as the African Painted Dog or Cape Hunting Dog, has a distinctive and captivating appearance. Here are some key features of its appearance:

  1. Size and Build: African Wild Dogs are medium-sized canids with a slender and athletic build. They have a body length ranging from 75 to 110 centimeters (30 to 43 inches) and stand about 60 to 75 centimeters (24 to 30 inches) tall at the shoulder. They weigh between 18 to 36 kilograms (40 to 80 pounds).
  2. Coloration and Coat: The coat of the African Wild Dog is one of its most striking features. It is characterized by a patchwork of various colors, including shades of brown, black, white, and yellow. The unique coat pattern is different for each individual, acting as a natural camouflage. The coat is short, stiff, and bristly, providing protection against the elements.
  3. Pattern and Markings: African Wild Dogs have distinct patterns of irregularly shaped patches on their bodies. These patches are predominantly black or dark brown, interspersed with patches of white or yellow. The arrangement of these patches is unique to each individual and serves as a visual identification tool within the pack.
  4. Large Ears: One of the notable features of African Wild Dogs is their large, rounded ears. These ears serve multiple purposes, including excellent hearing capabilities to detect prey, communication within the pack through vocalizations, and thermoregulation by dissipating excess body heat.
  5. Long Legs: African Wild Dogs have long legs, which contribute to their exceptional agility and endurance. Their elongated limbs enable them to cover vast distances while pursuing prey during hunts. They are renowned for their remarkable stamina, capable of maintaining a sustained pace over long distances.
  6. Muzzle and Dentition: The muzzle of African Wild Dogs is narrow and elongated, providing them with a specialized dentition suited for their carnivorous diet. They have sharp, pointed teeth and strong jaws for tearing and chewing meat efficiently.
  7. Bushy Tail: African Wild Dogs have a bushy tail with a white tip, which acts as a visual signal for communication within the pack. It helps individuals keep track of each other during hunts or when traversing dense vegetation.

The overall appearance of the African Wild Dog is captivating, with its vibrant and varied coat patterns, large ears, and athletic physique. These distinctive features make it one of the most visually striking and unique canid species in the African wilderness.

A. Striking Coat Patterns:

The African Wild Dog’s coat is adorned with a vibrant array of colors, including patches of black, white, brown, and yellow. These distinctive coat patterns are unique to each individual, acting as a form of natural identification. No two dogs have the same pattern, making them instantly recognizable.

B. Lean and Agile Build:

With a slender and athletic body, the African Wild Dog is built for speed and endurance. It has long legs and a lean physique, enabling it to cover vast distances during its hunting pursuits. Their strong jaws and sharp teeth are perfectly adapted for tearing apart prey.

Behaviour & Unique Social Structure:

The African Wild Dog, also known as the African Painted Dog or Cape Hunting Dog, exhibits fascinating behavioral characteristics. Here are some key aspects of their behavior:

  1. Social Structure: African Wild Dogs are highly social animals that live in packs. These packs usually consist of 10 to 30 individuals, but larger packs have been observed as well. The packs are organized with a dominant breeding pair, known as the alpha male and alpha female, leading the group.
  2. Cooperative Hunting: African Wild Dogs are renowned for their exceptional hunting skills and cooperative hunting strategy. They work together as a pack to chase and bring down their prey. Their hunting success rate is one of the highest among carnivores, with a success rate of around 70 to 90%.
  3. Communication: Communication plays a vital role in the social dynamics of African Wild Dogs. They use a variety of vocalizations, including high-pitched squeaks, twittering sounds, and distinctive calls, to coordinate their activities, maintain contact, and convey information within the pack.
  4. Voting Behavior: African Wild Dogs often exhibit a unique behavior called “voting” when deciding on important pack activities, such as initiating a hunt or choosing a resting place. Members of the pack sneeze in a rapid and rhythmic manner, and the decision is made based on the number of sneezes. This democratic process helps maintain unity and cooperation within the pack.
  5. Nomadic Nature: African Wild Dogs are nomadic in nature, constantly on the move in search of prey. They have extensive home ranges that can cover large areas, sometimes spanning hundreds of square kilometers. This nomadic behavior helps them maximize their chances of finding suitable prey and reduces competition with other carnivores.
  6. Denning Behavior: African Wild Dogs use dens for shelter and raising their young. The alpha female typically gives birth to a litter of pups, and the entire pack collaborates to care for and protect the pups. The dens are often located in burrows or abandoned dens created by other animals.
  7. Playful Nature: African Wild Dogs are highly playful animals, engaging in social bonding activities and interactive play within the pack. Play behavior helps strengthen social bonds, improve coordination skills, and maintain group cohesion.
  8. Vocalizations: Apart from their distinct calls and vocalizations for communication, African Wild Dogs also produce various other sounds, including greeting chirps, submissive whines, and growls when threatened or during aggressive encounters.

The complex social structure, cooperative hunting behavior, and unique communication methods make African Wild Dogs a fascinating species to observe. Their close-knit pack dynamics and nomadic lifestyle contribute to their survival in the African wilderness.

A. Pack Dynamics:

African Wild Dogs live in tight-knit social groups called packs, which can consist of 10 to 40 individuals. Each pack has an organized hierarchy led by an alpha male and alpha female, who are the dominant breeding pair. The rest of the pack members cooperate in raising the young and hunting for food.

B. Strong Family Bonds:

Within the pack, there is a remarkable sense of unity and cooperation. The dogs exhibit care and support for one another, and the entire pack shares responsibility for the rearing of pups. They communicate through a variety of vocalizations, including high-pitched whines and twittering sounds.

Hunting Strategies:

A. Cooperative Hunting:

African Wild Dogs are known for their exceptional hunting skills and cooperative hunting strategies. They work together in highly coordinated packs to pursue and capture prey. Their endurance and teamwork enable them to outlast their prey in long-distance chases, often reaching speeds of 60 kilometers per hour (37 mph).

B. Efficient Predators:

These canids have a high hunting success rate, estimated at around 80%. They target a wide range of prey, including antelopes, gazelles, and other small to medium-sized mammals. Their efficient hunting methods, such as chasing prey into exhaustion and overwhelming them with numbers, contribute to their success in securing meals for the entire pack.

Conservation Challenges:

A. Habitat Loss and Fragmentation:

One of the greatest threats to African Wild Dogs is habitat loss and fragmentation. As human populations expand and encroach upon their natural habitats, the dogs’ range becomes increasingly fragmented, leading to isolated populations with limited gene flow.

B. Human-Wildlife Conflict:

African Wild Dogs often face conflicts with humans, particularly in areas where they come into contact with livestock. Perceived as a threat, they are sometimes subject to persecution, including poaching and habitat destruction.

C. Disease and Competition:

Disease, such as canine distemper and rabies, pose significant risks to African Wild Dog populations. They are also vulnerable to competition with other predators, such as lions and hyenas, which may steal their kills or pose direct threats to their survival.

Conservation Efforts:

A. Protected Areas and Conservation Organizations:

Efforts are underway to protect African Wild Dogs through the establishment of protected areas and the collaboration of conservation organizations. These initiatives focus on securing suitable habitats, implementing anti-poaching measures, and raising awareness about the importance of conserving this endangered species.

B. Research and Monitoring:

Ongoing research and monitoring programs are crucial for gathering data on African Wild Dog populations, tracking their movements, and understanding their ecological needs. This information helps inform conservation strategies and enables scientists to assess the effectiveness of conservation efforts.

C. Community Involvement:

Engaging local communities in conservation activities is vital for the long-term success of African Wild Dog conservation. Incentivizing coexistence between humans and wildlife, promoting sustainable land-use practices, and providing alternative livelihoods can help mitigate human-wildlife conflicts and foster support for conservation initiatives.

Lycaon pictus

The Lycaon pictus (African Wild Dog) is a species of immense ecological and cultural significance. Its charismatic appearance, unique social structure, and cooperative hunting strategies make it a truly remarkable animal. However, the African Wild Dog faces numerous threats that endanger its survival. By promoting habitat conservation, mitigating human-wildlife conflicts, and raising awareness, we can work towards ensuring a future where this iconic species thrives in the African wilderness.

Where do African wild dogs live?

Wild Dogs roam freely in the semi-arid to savannah type of vegetation although they can move to woodland, scrublands and mountainous habitats in search of prey or food.

Behavior & Diet

African wild dogs are naturally social animals that live in packs made of 7 to 15 members, a number that can easily reach to 40 members and that is only because the wild dog population has decreased. It is recorded that during their peak, a single pack could reach to 100 members per pack.  Every pack of wild dogs is organized with a social structure. The strong and young adults take care of the wounded and sick wild dogs. Unlike other predators and animals, there is no aggression between members of a pack nor competition for hierarchy. During hunting, every pack is led by has a dominant pair made up of an alpha male and dominant female that are strictly non-polygamous and mate for. Wild dogs have many ways of communicating with each other which include a short bark  alarming times , a rallying howl, and a bell-like contact call that can be heard over long distances. Clearly made greeting rituals are accompanied by twittering and whining.

The entire wild dog pack is involved in taking care of the pups.

Both males and females take care of the young pups by protecting, staying with them and fetching food food for them.

How African Wild Dogs Feed their puppies and nursing females

Why the nursing females remain with their pups in the dens, the other wild dogs go for hunting in packs to look for food. After a successful hunt, the bring back the food to the young ones and females by regurgitating (they vomit the food to feed the pups and nursing females). Very few puppies survive due to many reasons that may include diseases, predators, and exposure even though their numbers are usually large at birth. The more the number of wild dogs in a pack the more efficient and successful they become at hunting and collecting more food for the pups. In most cases, the number of surviving pups depends on the number helpers. The more the number in a pack the higher the chances for survival.

African Wild Dog Adaptations

The African Wild Dog, or African Painted Dog, has evolved several adaptations that enable it to thrive in its unique habitat. Here are some notable adaptations of African Wild Dogs:

  1. Efficient Hunting Strategy: African Wild Dogs have developed a highly successful hunting strategy. Their slender body shape, long legs, and strong cardiorespiratory system allow them to pursue prey over long distances. They are capable of maintaining a steady pace of around 56 kilometers per hour (35 miles per hour) for extended periods, exhausting their prey through endurance rather than speed.
  2. Cooperative Hunting: One of the most remarkable adaptations of African Wild Dogs is their cooperative hunting behavior. They work together as a cohesive pack to hunt and take down larger prey. This cooperative hunting strategy increases their chances of successful kills and allows them to tackle larger and more formidable prey than they could as solitary hunters.
  3. Excellent Stamina: African Wild Dogs have remarkable stamina, enabling them to engage in prolonged chases. Their adaptations for efficient breathing, such as large lungs and a specialized respiratory system, allow them to take in and circulate oxygen efficiently during strenuous activities. This endurance gives them an advantage during hunts and helps them outlast their prey.
  4. Camouflage Coat: The coat of African Wild Dogs serves as a form of camouflage. Their patchy coat patterns, with a combination of colors such as brown, black, white, and yellow, help them blend into their environment, making it easier for them to approach prey undetected and reducing the likelihood of detection by potential predators.
  5. Powerful Jaws and Teeth: African Wild Dogs possess strong jaws and sharp, robust teeth adapted for tearing and cutting through flesh. Their carnassial teeth, which are specialized for shearing meat, allow them to efficiently consume their prey. This adaptation is crucial for obtaining the necessary nutrition from their kills.
  6. Synchronized Breeding: African Wild Dogs have the ability to synchronize their breeding cycles within the pack. This adaptation helps to ensure that all members of the pack cooperate in raising the young, maximizing the survival and success of the entire pack. It also contributes to the social cohesion and stability of the group.
  7. Social Bonding: The tight social structure and strong bonds within African Wild Dog packs are essential for their survival. Through social interactions, such as grooming, play behavior, and vocalizations, they strengthen their social bonds, promote cooperation, and maintain group cohesion.

These adaptations have allowed African Wild Dogs to thrive in their challenging environment and establish themselves as efficient predators. Their cooperative hunting, remarkable endurance, and social adaptations make them one of Africa’s most fascinating and successful carnivores.

Remember to respect the wildlife and follow the guidance of your safari guide to ensure a safe and responsible wildlife viewing experience.

Where to African Wild Dogs in Tanzania

Tanzania offers several excellent destinations for observing African Wild Dogs in their natural habitat. Here are some of the best places to see these fascinating creatures:

  1. Selous Game Reserve: Located in southern Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve is a vast wilderness area known for its diverse wildlife. The reserve is home to a significant population of African Wild Dogs, and guided safaris here offer excellent opportunities to spot these elusive predators.One of the best places to see African Wild Dogs in Tanzania is the Selous Game Reserve. Located in the southern part of the country, Selous is the largest protected area in Africa and offers a diverse and pristine wilderness for wildlife enthusiasts.Here are some reasons why Selous Game Reserve is an ideal destination to observe African Wild Dogs:
    1. Abundance of Wildlife: Selous Game Reserve is home to a rich variety of wildlife, including a healthy population of African Wild Dogs. The reserve’s vast size and diverse habitats provide ample opportunities to encounter these magnificent animals in their natural habitat.
    2. Exclusive Wilderness Experience: Selous is a relatively less crowded and more remote destination compared to other popular parks in Tanzania, offering a more exclusive and intimate wildlife experience. This allows for better wildlife sightings and a deeper connection with nature.
    3. Dedicated Guided Safaris: The reserve offers guided safaris led by experienced and knowledgeable guides who are familiar with the behavior and movements of African Wild Dogs. These guides have a deep understanding of the reserve and can increase your chances of encountering these fascinating creatures.
    4. Boat Safaris: Selous Game Reserve is renowned for its boat safaris along the Rufiji River, which meanders through the reserve. These boat safaris offer a unique perspective to observe wildlife, including African Wild Dogs, as they come to the river to drink, hunt, or simply cool off.
    5. Walking Safaris: Selous is also known for its exceptional walking safaris, allowing visitors to explore the wilderness on foot under the guidance of professional armed guides. This up-close and personal experience provides a thrilling opportunity to encounter African Wild Dogs in their natural environment.
    6. Conservation Efforts: Selous Game Reserve is actively involved in the conservation and protection of African Wild Dogs. The reserve collaborates with various conservation organizations to monitor and study these endangered animals, contributing to their long-term survival.

    While Selous Game Reserve is a prime location to spot African Wild Dogs, it’s important to note that wildlife sightings are never guaranteed. These animals are naturally elusive and roam freely in the wild. Patience, perseverance, and a bit of luck are key when embarking on a safari to see African Wild Dogs.

  2. Ruaha National Park: Situated in central Tanzania, Ruaha National Park is renowned for its pristine wilderness and abundant wildlife. The park’s diverse landscapes, including riverine forests and open plains, provide an ideal habitat for African Wild Dogs. Game drives and guided walks in Ruaha offer a chance to encounter these animals.
  3. Mikumi National Park: Mikumi National Park is located in the southern part of Tanzania and offers a compact yet rewarding safari experience. The park is known for its open grasslands and acacia woodlands, which attract a variety of wildlife, including African Wild Dogs. Game drives in Mikumi can lead to sightings of these captivating animals.
  4. Tarangire National Park: Situated in northern Tanzania, Tarangire National Park is famous for its large elephant herds and stunning baobab trees. The park also provides a habitat for African Wild Dogs, and visitors have the opportunity to spot them while exploring the park’s diverse landscapes on game drives.
  5. Ngorongoro Conservation Area: The Ngorongoro Conservation Area, encompassing the Ngorongoro Crater and surrounding highlands, is a UNESCO World Heritage site known for its incredible biodiversity. The area is home to various wildlife species, including African Wild Dogs. Exploring the Ngorongoro Crater and its surroundings can offer a chance to encounter these unique predators.

It’s important to note that wildlife sightings can vary depending on factors such as the time of year, animal movements, and luck. It’s advisable to consult with experienced safari operators or local guides who have up-to-date knowledge of African Wild Dog sightings and behavior in these specific areas.

Remember to practice responsible wildlife viewing, adhere to park regulations, and respect the animals and their natural habitats for a memorable and sustainable safari experience.

African Wild Dog Safari Tips

When embarking on a safari to observe African Wild Dogs in Tanzania, it’s important to be well-prepared to maximize your chances of encountering these incredible creatures. Here are some safari tips to enhance your African Wild Dog experience:

  1. Choose the Right Time: African Wild Dog sightings can be more common during the dry season when vegetation is thinner, making it easier to spot these animals. Consider visiting Tanzania between June and October for optimal wildlife viewing opportunities.
  2. Research Wildlife Hotspots: Prioritize visiting national parks and reserves known for their African Wild Dog populations, such as Selous Game Reserve, Ruaha National Park, Mikumi National Park, and Tarangire National Park. These areas have diverse habitats that support a range of wildlife, including African Wild Dogs.
  3. Engage Experienced Guides: Opt for guided safaris led by experienced guides who possess knowledge about African Wild Dogs. Their expertise in tracking and understanding animal behavior can significantly increase your chances of locating and observing these elusive predators.
  4. Morning and Late Afternoon Safaris: African Wild Dogs are often more active during the early morning and late afternoon hours when temperatures are cooler. Plan your game drives during these times to catch them in action as they hunt, socialize, or move around their territories.
  5. Be Patient and Observant: Wild dogs are highly mobile and can cover vast distances, so be prepared for some patience during your safari. Scan the landscape carefully, keep an eye out for any signs of movement or unusual behavior, and listen for their distinctive vocalizations.
  6. Use Binoculars and Cameras: African Wild Dogs are known for their camouflage and can blend into their surroundings, making them challenging to spot with the naked eye. Carry binoculars or a camera with a telephoto lens to get a closer look and capture memorable photographs.
  7. Stay Silent and Still: When you encounter African Wild Dogs, maintain a quiet and calm demeanor. Avoid sudden movements or loud noises that could startle or disturb them. By staying still and observing from a safe distance, you’ll have a better chance of witnessing their natural behavior.
  8. Respect Wildlife Etiquette: Always follow the instructions of your safari guide and adhere to park regulations. Keep a respectful distance from the animals, never approach or feed them, and do not interfere with their natural activities.
  9. Enjoy the Whole Safari Experience: While your primary focus may be on African Wild Dogs, embrace the full safari experience by appreciating the diverse wildlife, landscapes, and cultural aspects of Tanzania. Every safari encounter is unique and offers opportunities to learn and connect with nature.
  10. Contribute to Conservation: Support conservation efforts by visiting responsible tourism operators and organizations dedicated to protecting African Wild Dogs and their habitats. By doing so, you can contribute to their long-term survival and conservation.

Remember, wildlife sightings are never guaranteed, but with proper planning, patience, and a bit of luck, you can have a remarkable safari experience observing African Wild Dogs in Tanzania.

Frequently Asked Questions about African Wild Dogs:

  1. Are African Wild Dogs dangerous?
    African Wild Dogs are generally not considered dangerous to humans. They are shy and elusive animals and tend to avoid confrontations with larger species, including humans. However, like any wild animal, they should be respected and observed from a safe distance.
  2. How many African Wild Dogs are left in the wild?
    The population of African Wild Dogs has declined significantly over the years, and they are now considered an endangered species. It is estimated that there are between 5,000 to 6,000 individuals remaining in the wild.
  3. What do African Wild Dogs eat?
    African Wild Dogs are carnivorous predators. Their diet primarily consists of medium-sized ungulates such as impalas, gazelles, and other antelope species. They are also known to prey on smaller mammals like hares and rodents.
  4. How fast can African Wild Dogs run?
    African Wild Dogs are incredibly agile and can reach impressive speeds. They are one of the fastest land animals, capable of running at speeds of up to 60 kilometers per hour (37 miles per hour) during pursuit of their prey.
  5. Do African Wild Dogs live in packs?
    Yes, African Wild Dogs are highly social animals and live in packs. These packs can consist of up to 10 to 20 individuals, although pack sizes can vary. They have a complex social structure and rely on cooperation for hunting, raising young, and defending their territories.
  6. What is the lifespan of African Wild Dogs?
    The average lifespan of African Wild Dogs in the wild is around 10 to 12 years. However, in protected areas with reduced threats, some individuals have been known to live up to 15 years.
  7. Do African Wild Dogs make any sounds?
    Yes, African Wild Dogs communicate through a variety of vocalizations. They produce a unique vocalization known as a “hoo call,” which is a distinctive sound used for communication within the pack. They also make chirping, squeaking, and growling sounds to express different behaviors and emotions.
  8. Are African Wild Dogs endangered?
    Yes, African Wild Dogs are classified as an endangered species. They face numerous threats, including habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, diseases, and poaching. Conservation efforts are crucial for their survival and the preservation of their natural habitats.
  9. Do African Wild Dogs have any natural predators?
    While African Wild Dogs are skilled predators themselves, they can face threats from larger carnivores such as lions, hyenas, and crocodiles. These predators may compete with African Wild Dogs for prey or target their young.
  10. How can I contribute to African Wild Dog conservation?
    You can contribute to African Wild Dog conservation by supporting organizations and initiatives dedicated to their protection. This can include donating to conservation projects, spreading awareness about their plight, and practicing responsible wildlife tourism when visiting areas where they reside.

Remember, if you have the opportunity to encounter African Wild Dogs in the wild, observe them from a respectful distance and follow the guidance of experienced guides to ensure the safety and well-being of both the animals and yourself.

African Wild Dog

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